I hate to a be a downer, but this might not end well for you.
There are all sorts of red flags here. Your company has no…
…idea who their customers might be.
…budget to research the market.
…willingness to research the market.
This has all the hallmarks of a startup that is set to fail.
What’s more, all of the pieces you need to make any sort of progress on your assignment are not available. The owner is not willing to help you, you have no data to work off of, and you have no ability to interview customers-- even if you knew who they might be.
It’s easy to look at things from an armchair and say “get out now.” From a practical perspective, it’s much harder to take that advice. This is why I never make that suggestion lightly (in fact, I’ve never made it to anyone in this community.)
Get out of this company as quickly as possible, and move on to a new employer.