Hi @yang Welcome to the UX Mastery Community!
User Centered Design, Human Centered Design and Design Thinking are often used interchangeably. The field of UX Design is relatively new and constantly evolving, and several industry leaders and organisations have proposed their own frameworks.
Design thinking can be thought of as a much larger, abstract framework for problem solving, and can be used across different industries to understand and define problems, brainstorm solutions, prototype and test solutions. The framework advocates cycling through, and jumping back and forth the phases to plug back learnings and iterate.
Garett’s framework of 5 planes or elements can be thought of in terms of the anatomy of an interactive, digital product (website, mobile app etc). It helps understand all the steps and the sequence in which designers must work to build a product. Within each of the steps, the design thinking framework can be implemented in various degrees, for example, create a sitemap (the prototype) and test it with the users to evaluate whether the sitemap is understood well, and if changes are needed. Similarly, you can test prototypes of the UI and refine it.
You can think of design thinking as the framework that helps you figure out what to build (the product/service), and the planes as framework to actually build the product. And while building the product, you can implement the design thinking process to figure out what the deliverables for each of the smaller components of the product will be.
I hope this clarifies your doubts
I recommend going through the following articles to understand the relationship between design thinking and the 5 elements: